Thursday, January 23, 2020
The Value of a Jury System The Founders of our nation understood that no idea was more central to our Bill of Rights -- indeed, to government of the people, by the people, and for the people -- than the citizen jury. It was cherished not only as a bulwark against tyranny but also as an essential means of educating Americans in the habits and duties of citizenship. By enacting the Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh Amendments to the Constitution, the Framers sought to install the right to trial by jury as a cornerstone of a free society. The Framers of the Constitution felt that juries -- because they were composed of ordinary citizens and because they owed no financial allegiance to the government -- were indispensable to thwarting the excesses of powerful and overzealous government officials. The jury trial was the only right explicitly included in each of the state constitutions devised between 1776 and 1789 . And the criminal jury was one of few rights explicitly mentioned in the original federal constitution proposed by the Philadelphia Convention. Anti-federalists complained that the proposed constitution did not go far enough in protecting juries, and federalists eventually responded by enacting three constitutional amendments guaranteeing grand, petit, and civil juries. The need for juries was especially acute in criminal cases: A grand jury could block any prosecution it deemed unfounded or malicious, and a petit jury could likewise interpose itself on behalf of a defendant charged unfairly. The famous Zenge r case in the 1730s dramatized the libertarian advantages of juries . When New York's royal government sought to stifle its newspaper critics through criminal prosecution, New York grand juries refused to indict, and a petit jury famously refused to convict . But the Founders' vision of the jury went far beyond merely protecting defendants. The jury's democratic role was intertwined with other ideas enshrined in the Bill of Rights, including free speech and citizen militias. The jury was an essential democratic institution because it was a means by which citizens could engage in self-government. Nowhere else -- not even in the voting booth -- must Americans come together in person to deliberate over fundamental matters of justice . Jurors face a solemn obligation to overlook personal differences and prejudices to fairl... ... jury service. If the jury system is to remain a central institution of democracy and citizenship, it must be refined. Jury trials must attract engaged and thoughtful citizens; the rules of the courts must treat jurors as sovereign, self-governing citizens rather than as children. To this end, we suggest a number of reforms. In many instances, these changes would require no new laws, but merely a willingness on the part of the courts to unleash the common sense of the ordinary citizen. References Alschuler, Albert, "Our faltering jury.," Public Interest, Jan 1996, pp. 28. Culp, Douglass, "Do criminal juries let too many defendants loose?," Vol. 12, Birmingham Business Journal, 18 Dec 1995, pp. 15. Curriden, Mark, "Jury reform.," Vol. 81, ABA Journal, Nov 1995, pp. 72. McElhaney, James, "Jury instructions.," Vol. 81, ABA Journal, Nov 1995, pp. 91. Savage, David., "A jury of your peers.," Vol. 81, ABA Journal, Oct 1995, pp. 40. Zobel, Hiller, "The jury on trial.," Current, Nov 1995, pp. 8.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
In Ã¢â¬Å"Cathedral,Ã¢â¬ Raymond Carver wrote the story of an unnamed male narrator who describes a visit from Robert, a blind male friend of his wife. RobertsÃ¢â¬â¢ arrival and stay in the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s home causes the narrator to abandon his stereotypes about blind people and to understand himself better. Carver, through his story, claims that in order to be free we must detach ourselves from stereotypes and focus on self understanding. Carver uses Ã¢â¬Å"CathedralÃ¢â¬ as the title for his story in order to emphasize that the process of completing a cathedral is more important than the end result, which could take approximately one hundred years. In the process of drawing a cathedral with the blind man, the narrator, putting himself in RobertÃ¢â¬â¢s shoes, is enlightened while a meaningful relationship develops between the two men. The narrator goes through a process of transformation. In the beginning of the story, the narrator is very much against RobertÃ¢â¬â¢s visit. Jealousy and hatred seem to overcome him. His wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s fondness for Robert and their close friendship that has spanned thousand of miles and ten years bothers him. Furthermore, the stereotypical image that he has built in his mind about blind men hinders him from welcoming Robert into his home and into his life. However, things change as the narrator and Robert begin on a quest to draw a cathedral. The end result is not the cathedral drawn but the feeling that overcomes the narrator after having embarked on the process. The narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s new found consciousness would not have come about if not for the process. By drawing, the narrator is able to experience different feelings that have been alien to him before. Even with eyes closed, the narrator still succeeds in producing the cathedral. This demonstrates that the value is not in the final product but in the journey that one undergoes to reach it. It is not the end product that heightens spirituality in an individual; it is the journey that allows a person to reach further. It is not the end product but the journey that allows the person to experience. Without the process, there will be no experience. Looking at someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s work is far different from producing the work. One appreciates the end product more if he realizes the work that goes into producing it. The story of Ã¢â¬Å"CathedralÃ¢â¬ clearly demonstrates such. The narrator had difficulty describing the cathedrals that were shown on television. This was because he had little understanding and experience in cathedrals. As the narrator said, Ã¢â¬Å"I canÃ¢â¬â¢t tell you what a cathedral looks like. It just isnÃ¢â¬â¢t in me to do it. I canÃ¢â¬â¢t do any more than IÃ¢â¬â¢ve done.Ã¢â¬ His difficulty stems not from his inability to see the cathedral; it comes from his lack of experience and understanding of what a cathedral is and what it stands for. The narrator sees no value in cathedrals. He said, Ã¢â¬Å"The truth is, cathedrals donÃ¢â¬â¢t mean anything special to me. Nothing. Cathedrals. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re something to look at on late-night TV. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s all they are.Ã¢â¬ However, having embarked on the process of drawing a cathedral, the narrator is able to experience. He is able to build a new perspective on things. This goes to show that it is not the end result but the journey to it that really matters.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Geomorphology is the science of landforms, with an emphasis on their origin, evolution, form, and distribution across the physical landscape. Understanding geomorphology is therefore essential to understanding one of the most popular divisions of geography. Studying geomorphological processes provides significant insight into the formation of the various structures and features in landscapes worldwide, which can then be used as a background for studying many other aspects ofÃ physical geography. History of Geomorphology Although the study of geomorphology has been around since ancient times, the first official geomorphologic model was proposed between 1884 and 1899 by the American geographerÃ William Morris Davis. His geomorphic cycle model was inspired by theories ofÃ uniformitarianismÃ and attempted to theorize the development of various landform features. Daviss theories were important in launching the field of geomorphology and were innovative at the time, as a new way to explain physical landform features. Today, however, his model is not usually used, because the processes he described are not so systematic in the real world. It failed to take into account the processes observed in later geomorphic studies. Since Daviss model, several alternative attempts have been made to explain landform processes. For example, Austrian geographer Walther Penck developed a model in the 1920s that looked at ratios of uplift and erosion. It did not take hold, though, because it could not explain all landform features. Geomorphological Processes Today, the study of geomorphology is broken down into the study of various geomorphological processes. Most of these processes are considered to be interconnected and are easily observed and measured with modern technology. The individual processes are considered to be either erosional, depositional, or both. AnÃ erosional processÃ involves the wearing down of the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface by wind, water, and/or ice. AÃ depositional processÃ is the laying down of material that has been eroded by wind, water, and/or ice. There are several geomorphological classifications within erosional and depositional. Fluvial Fluvial geomorphological processes are related to rivers and streams. The flowing water found here is important in shaping the landscape in two ways. First, the power of the water moving across a landscape cuts and erodes its channel. As it does this, the river shapes its landscape by growing, meandering across the landscape, and sometimes merging with others to form a network of braided rivers. The paths rivers take depend on the topology of the area and the underlying geology or rock structure where it moves. As the river carves its landscape, it also carries the sediment it erodes as it flows. This gives it more power to erode, as there is more friction in the moving water, but it also deposits this material when it floods or flows out of mountains onto an open plain, as in the case of an alluvial fan. Mass Movement The mass movement process, also sometimes called mass wasting, occurs when soil and rock move down a slope under the force of gravity. The movement of the material is called creeping, sliding, flowing, toppling, and falling. Each of these depends on the speed and composition of the material moving. This process is both erosional and depositional. Glacial GlaciersÃ are one of the most significant agents of landscape change because of their massive size converts to power as they move across an area. They are erosional forces because their ice carves the ground beneath them and on the sides, which forms a U-shaped valley, as with a valley glacier. Glaciers are also depositional because their movement pushes rocks and other debris into new areas. The sediment created when glaciers grind down rocks is called glacialÃ rock flour. As glaciers melt, they drop debris, which creates features like eskers and moraines. Weathering Weathering is an erosional process that involves the mechanical wearing down of rock by a plantÃ¢â¬â¢s roots growing and pushing through it, ice expanding in its cracks, and abrasion from sediment pushed by wind and water, as well as the chemical break down of rock like limestone. Weathering can result in rock falls and unique eroded rock shapes like those in Arches National Park, Utah.
Sunday, December 29, 2019
Recently in the scientific world, the field of embryonic stem cell research has become a popular topic and has been the subject for many heated debates. Experts in the field of stem cell research promise that this will be the future of medicine; that stem cells will be the cure to all the debilitating diseases and afflictions of today, such as AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease, heart disease, cancer and nerve damage. The truth about embryonic stem cell research is that it is not as hopeful and as revolutionary as it seems. Many problems that will negate the use of stem cells will and have already begun to arise, especially in areas concerning health risks to the patient, opportunity costs and human rights (Condic 803). Taking into account all theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦With the hopes of curing the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s afflictions, these newly grown cells would then be transplanted into the patient. With this approach come major problems such as the formation of tumours, which is caused b y the distinguishing trait of stem cells. Because stem cells are able to divide for an unlimited amount of time, it has been found that the cells will not know when to stop dividing and they will continue to divide even after being transplanted into the patient (Herold 48). This form of treatment is counterproductive, as uncontrollable cell division will produce tumours and potentially cause cancer, which is one of the ailments that stem cell research promises to cure. Another health problem that treatment with embryonic stem cells can cause is tissue rejection. As is the case with current organ transplantation procedures, embryonic stem cells are harvested from many people all who possess a unique set of genes; therefore, the stem cells are not genetically matched for each patient (Herold 48-49). The difference in genetics causes the body to reject the tissue and the immune system begins to attack the transplanted tissue like it would a virus or bacteria in an attempt to remove t he perceived threat. To avoid the implanted tissues being rejected by the body, doctors must prescribe immune suppression drugs that must be taken for the remainder of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s life, even with these drugs the tissue may still be rejected andShow MoreRelatedBiomedical Engineering: Stem Cells Essay1584 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesadvances and research that stem from biomedical engineers can solve problems that would have never have been able to be solved before. Engineers have been working on new technology that will utilize stem cells in order to save lives and treat diseases. The stem cells that are used for treatment are called embryonic stem cells. Embryonic stem cells are formed from five-day old human embryos that the embryos are essentially human beings (In Stem-cell ResearchÃ¢â¬ Para. 3). The usage of such stem cells has causedRead MorePotential Medical Benefits of Embryonic Stem Cells999 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesscientific advances and beneficial research. Scientists all over the world have been doing recent studies on embryonic stem cells. Embryonic stem cells are the cells that aid the process of child growth while in the womb. These cells have a specific function to reproduce into any body part, such as a heart or major organ to hair or something not so major. Research shows that these cells have many potential medical benefits in the future. Embryonic stem cell research should continue to be pursued inRead MoreResearch On Stem Cell Research Essay1708 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Stem Cell Research James A Merritt PIMA Medical institute Embryonic stem cell research is a controversial topic. In the religious aspect its man trying to play the authority of GOD on whether people should live, die or suffer from ailments and injuries. On a scientific and medical aspect it is compassionate people lookingRead MoreStem Cells And Stem Cell Research1477 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessociety is that of stem cells. Stem cells are the cells in the early human developmental stage that form to be any type of cell. Not only do these cells have the ability to transform, but they also act as the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s repair system. With this knowledge, the scientific community has used these traits to help cure diseases and even save lives. However, there is a problem using stem cells for research. There are two kinds of stem cells that exist, Somatic stem cells and embryonic stem cells. The firstRead More Stem Cell Research Essay1303 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesStem Cell Research In light of the continued advancement of technology and research in the medical field, there have been some groundbreaking developments that have been heralded as indications that scientific research can produce remarkable results when it is integrated with technology. Since the turn of the 20th century, major breakthroughs like the discovery of DNA and the development of anti-retroviral drugs for HIV/AIDS have been cited as the reason why scientific research especially in theRead MoreFinding a Cure through Regenerative Medicine: Government-Funded Embryonic Stem Cell Research1582 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesno death.Ã¢â¬ In 2001 President George W. Bush banned the further funding of embryonic stem cell research. Why? Some feel that embryonic stem cell research encouraged abortion, and that by banning the federal funding for embryonic stem cell research it would lessen the rates of abortion. However, just recently President Barack Obama has reversed that law and thereby allowing federal funding for embryonic stem cell research. According to the CDC, Center of Disease Control, one in five-hundred peopleRead MoreStem Cell Research Funding Essay1392 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSchutte English 2 HN 7 December 2017 Stem Cell Research Funding Thomas Edison said that Ã¢â¬Å"[t]he doctor of the future will give no medicine but will interest his patients in the care of the human frame, in diet and in the cause and prevention of disease.Ã¢â¬ He is saying that doctors will care more about the lives of his patients no what is best for them. He means that they will be investing time in preventing diseases all together instead of momentarily fixing the problem. In his time, he had no idea whatRead MoreThe For An Anonymous Donor Program985 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAdditionally, while there are solutions to the organ shortage problem, there are also alternative solutions. The first alternative solution is to establish an anonymous donor program, where organs are donated and received from complete strangers. An advantage to an anonymous donor program would be that, it would eliminate the social bias and the medical bias. On the other hand, a disadvantage would be that, the recipient of the organ would know nothing about the dono r. That could present issuesRead MoreThe Use Of Embryonic Stem Cells In Medicine1472 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescure a disease? Embryonic Stem Cells can be used to treat many different diseases, but some people have their opinion that using these stem cells in medicine is unethical because they are coming from a human embryo. There are countries that have banned the use of embryonic stem cells in medicine, and in America there are people arguing that it should be banned here. But what about all of the lives that these stem cells are saving, what if research continues and these embryonic stem cells end up beingRead MoreA Research Study On Embryonic Stem Cell Research1618 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesnew field of science, embryonic stem cell research. This field involves research that could develop cures or methods of preventing, treating, or medicating people afflicted with these debilitating, often deadly disorders. This field, unfortunately, is not supported by everyone. In fact it is so cont roversial, that in America, federal funding is not allowed. This severely limits the opportunities that these special cells can provide. Yet scientists continue to research these cells, because they feel
Saturday, December 21, 2019
Numbers always seem to make a difference in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life which could be because of the different cultural values and norms that they practice. America is a country with opportunities where all heart belongs yet the cultural perspective on aging is shattering. Aging is perceived differently in each country and this perspective is remodeled as we blend in more than one cultural values for age. For the one-one project, I chose my grandparents because they have always inspired me and motivated me in all fields, which is why I wanted to know how they feel living in the U.S. at their childrens place. My grandfather, Sonam who is 70 years old and my grandmother, Chime who is 78 years old, have been married for more than 50 years now. I chose themÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Furthermore, I asked them if aging has made a difference in their life, they said, Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, because aging has allowed us to understand that we should let the self-fade and in this limited time that we have, we should accept everyone without counting their flaws.Ã¢â¬ Since both my grandparents are Buddhist and they are a big believer of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, they always practice the virtue of others before self. And when I asked my grandma if she thinks they have brought this virtue to life, she said, Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, a couple of times I think. We have helped two nuns who were in a devastating position financially and healthwise, and they feel that they have made a contribution in those nunsÃ¢â¬â¢ life by donating and helping them stay at their place. However, they are not proud, but happy that they could do something for the community even after they have aged. Additionally, I asked my grandparents about how they met my grandmother was very shy. My grandmother was a widow before she married my grandfather. Her first husband had died at a young age and she was left with her three little kids. She told me about how my grandfather wanted to marry her because he fell for her. S ince she was a widow, my grandpaÃ¢â¬â¢s family did not accept her because they were concerned about the society. She said, Ã¢â¬Å"Your grandpaÃ¢â¬â¢s mother did not accept me and his mother told him, Ã¢â¬Å"She is a widow with three little kids. Who is going to take careShow MoreRelatedReflection Paper On Aging1710 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe embodied aging and experience by creating a storyline based on the character, Billy, shared the good news of him finally proposing to his much younger girlfriend with his dearest friends and wanted them to be supportive in his decision-making. All four friends decided to escape from their daily lives a couple of days in order to throw a bachelor party together for Billy in Las Vegas (Last Vegas, 2013). They have been best friends since childhood, yet have experienced a different aging journey (LastRead MoreThe Process of Aging in Up a Movie by Carl Fredricksen854 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Life is a chronological process filled with transitions and relationships. The purpose of this paper is to delineate an understanding of an older manÃ¢â¬â¢s journey through later life from a gerontology perspective and define real-life learning of an older adult as it was presented in the film Ã¢â¬Å"UpÃ¢â¬ . By reviewing the life events of the main character Carl Fredricksen a retired balloon salesman and how he fulfills a lifelong dream of a great adventure to South America. The animated film is a comedyRead MorePhysical And Cognitive Values Of The Aging Process Essay1356 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLife Review In this paper, aging will be analyzed and evaluated by many topics that are involved in the aging process. J.S. is an elderly woman with information and insight about the aging process as she explains her own life experiences. The topics to be discussed are biological information, biological theory, sociological theory, risk factors, interventions, communication techniques, and self-reflection. The analysis and evaluation of J.S.Ã¢â¬â¢s aging process will explore the physical and cognitiveRead MoreThe Benefits Of Active Learning And Student Centered Teaching Strategies Improve Motivation And Performance Among Nursing Students1173 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfaced in engaging students and cultivating new nursing graduates with skills benefitting societal and professional sustainability. The aim of this paper is to determine by integrative review whether active learning and student-centered teaching strategies improve motivation and performance among nursing students. Active learning str ategies such as reflection, simulation, and feedback can increase motivation to learn in nursing students. Acknowledging successful teaching strategies improves studentRead MoreIntern Reflection Paper871 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIntern Reflection Paper The internship that I acquired during the summer of 2010 at the Greenwood Sports and Industrial Rehabilitation Center (GSIRC), allowed me to gain an immeasurable amount of experience during my tenure at this facility. Within this period, the exposure to new concepts within the physical therapy industry allowed me to observe and work hands on with patients of all ages and disabilities that exposed me to various treatment plans and programs to restore clientÃ¢â¬â¢s mobility. TheRead MoreImproving Student Motivation And Performance Are Improved With Active Learning And Student Centered Teaching Strategies1180 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesin engaging students and cultivating new nursing graduates with skills benefitting societal and professional sustainability. The aim of this paper is to determine by integrative review whether nursing student motivation and performance are improved with active learning and student-centered teaching strategies. Active learning strategies such as reflectio n, simulation, and feedback can increase motivation to learn in nursing students. It is important to acknowledge successful teaching strategiesRead MoreThe Aging Process : An Unyielding Gauntlet Between The Fantasies Of Eternal Youth And Immortality881 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesare decaying now and soon I shall be so I cannot remember any but the things that never happened. It is sad to go to pieces like this but we all have to do itÃ¢â¬ (quotegarden.com). The aging process can be an unyielding gauntlet between the fantasies of eternal youth and immortality. Thesis Statement Although the aging process can be seen visibly, transformations from early though late adulthood can be more easily explained and accepted through the changes in physical, cognitive and emotional changesRead MoreTheory of Successful Aging1648 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTheory Of Successful Aging INTERNAL CRITICISM Adequacy: The FloodÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory of Successful Aging (Flood, 2005) was developed to addresses a nursing theory for care of the older adult regarding to the lack of nursing theory that offers clearly delineated guidelines for care of aging. FloodÃ¢â¬â¢s(2002) unique definition of successful aging among other explanations includes mental, physical, and spiritual elements of the aging person and emphasizing the individuals self appraisal. She used existing knowledgeRead MoreFor This Assignment, The Author Interviewed An Elderly1452 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbecame confident enough to ask more personal questions later in the conversation. The elderly woman agreed to a second interview to continue patient education which will be discussed in detail. For this paper, the individual will be referred to as Irene, so that her privacy is protected. This paper acts as an organizational tool to detail the process and considerations taken, including therapeutic communication skills, to provide Ir ene with a personalized educational session on OSA. Synopsis of InterviewRead MoreLeadership Experiences And Complexity Theory976 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the nursing profession there are many roles that we have to fulfill. For the aging population it is crucial that the nurse has a good sense of holistic care to fulfill the many roles that we take part in to create client centered care and an ongoing support system. When reflection on my clinical experience Ã¢â¬ËfallsÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Å"to increase strength and mobilityÃ¢â¬â¢ were the most common diagnosis seen on the Kardex and patient chart. Public Health agency of Canada (2011) stated that one in three geriatric
Friday, December 13, 2019
Tennyson was published in 1830 and is the text I have chosen to do closely analyze. The subject matter of the poem was taken from one of Shakespearean plays titled Ã¢â¬Å"Measure for MeasureÃ¢â¬ , and the line: Ã¢â¬Å"Marina in the mooted grange,Ã¢â¬ gave Tennyson the inspiration to write of a young woman waiting for her lover. The two texts share a common theme of abandonment, as in Shakespearean play the young woman is also diligently awaiting the return of her lover Angelo after his desertion upon discovering her loss of dowry. We will write a custom essay sample on Tennyson Close Analysis or any similar topic only for you Order Now Similarly to Shakespearean text, Marianne lacks action or any narrative movement, the entire poem serving as an extended depiction of the melancholy isolation a young woman experiences whilst pining for her vacant lover. The language, meter, format and tone of the poem contribute to the inherent themes of isolation, death and decay, which I will closely examine in this close reading exercise. Unlike some of Tennyson other works such as Ulysses, Marianne doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a dramatic monologue although it does feature a refrain. This method isolates Marina from us, and the poem being written in a third person lyrical narrative makes the title guru unable to linguistically control her own poem. The refrain is the only part within the poem in which Marina is able to speak out directly to the reader as well as the only form of dialogue: in the first stanza, lineÃ¢â¬â¢s 9-12 Ã¢â¬Å"My life is dreary/He cometh notÃ¢â¬â¢ she said:/She said, Ã¢â¬Ël am areaway, areaway, I would that I were dead! Her desperation is evident to the reader, and Ã¢â¬Ëshe saidÃ¢â¬â¢ being written in past tense is significant since we are left wondering of her fate as a result of her misery. The refrain undergoes minor changes throughout the poem, giving a small fragment of pope to both the reader and Marina who is stuck in a monotonous cycle of despair. In the second, third and fourth stanza she alternates between Ã¢â¬Ëday, night and lightÃ¢â¬â¢, in the final 9-12 lines of the stanza, emphasizes that nothing really changes s ince her feelings of being Ã¢â¬Ëareaway continue regardless of the time of day. In the final stanza, in the 9-12th lines, the refrain changes dramatically from the continuous and unchanging refrain the reader had become accustomed to. Marina now WeepsÃ¢â¬â¢ instead of Ã¢â¬ËsaysÃ¢â¬â¢ and asks Ã¢â¬ËGodÃ¢â¬â¢ to end her misery, thus the plea is no longer a wish but a prayer and an appeal, signifying the end to all hope. She is now sure that Ã¢â¬ËheÃ¢â¬â¢ will never return and her recognition of this show that she accepts it. The use of the pronoun Ã¢â¬ËheÃ¢â¬â¢ in the refrain is interesting. We never learn Ã¢â¬ËhisÃ¢â¬â¢ name or of his existence therefore his presence in the poem is very ambiguous. It could be that Marina is just waiting for a lover who has deserted her, or that Ã¢â¬ËheÃ¢â¬â¢ could be symbolic of a male dominant society that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t help her. The refrain shapes majority of the poem as it allows the reader to understand MarinaÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings, whereas the language and the setting only serve as a metaphor for her internal anguish and isolation. Although the poem is static, meaning it involves no action, the pathetic fallacy and personification of the setting is a reflection of MarinaÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological decay as well as the world that she inhibits. In the first stanza, from lines 1 to 7, MarinaÃ¢â¬â¢s surroundings are described as Ã¢â¬ËblackestÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËrustedÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËbrokenÃ¢â¬â¢, Weeded and wornÃ¢â¬â¢, and Ã¢â¬Ëlonely. Everything that is man-made is in a state of decay, symbolic for MarinaÃ¢â¬â¢s personal deteriorating and dissatisfaction of men. The iambic tetrameter, which sets the rhythmic, repetitive tone of the poem, is constantly interrupted by the refrain at he end of each stanza, symbolic to how Marianne can never feel at ease and is always in a state of psychological unrest. The three four-line rhyme units pattern of ABA CDC BEEF entrap the reader, since the E and F essentially remain the same in each stanza, which parallels with MarinaÃ¢â¬â¢s own entrapment. Words such as Ã¢â¬Ëshrieks and Ã¢â¬ËcrickedÃ¢â¬â¢ in the sixth stanza between on line 2 and 5, are Tennyson use of onomatopoeia to further involve the reader in how Marina is feeling by using harsh and penetrating sounds. Through close analysis there are signs of hope Marina instills in us for both her fate and the return of her lover. In the first stanza on line 6, it is described that Ã¢â¬Ëunlisted was the clinking latchÃ¢â¬â¢ emphasizing her hope for his return, and in the second stanza on line 8, when she Ã¢â¬Ëglanced athwart the gloaming flats,Ã¢â¬â¢ although the use of Ã¢â¬ËgloamingÃ¢â¬â¢ is a morbid foreshadowing, Marina watches her surroundings as if she is waiting for a soldier to return from the battlefield and into her open arms. But as Marina deteriorates and hope fails her, so does the language in the poem. In the sixth stanza between lines 6 and 8, Marina descends into madness as her house becomes haunted by Ã¢â¬Ëold faces, glimmered throÃ¢â¬â¢ the doors, [old toasters, trod the upper floors, [old voices called her from without. Ã¢â¬Ë The use of past tense with Ã¢â¬ËglimmeredÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËcalledÃ¢â¬â¢ signifies that Marianne is still living in the past, as her libido flows backwards. She remembers happier times because she is haunted, and the psychological reversions as well as physical deterioration move in parallel order, creating overwhelming sense of degeneration and loss. In the last stanza, the sparrowÃ¢â¬â¢s chirrup on the roof, [the slow clock ticking,Ã¢â¬â¢ this first and second line stood out. Ã¢â¬ËThe sparrow is symbolic because it is a sign of impending death, in Christian homeboys the sparrow was seen as offering made by person without any means. As for the Ã¢â¬Ëslow clock ticking, this can be interpreted for the lack of time and the poemÃ¢â¬â¢s constant circular motion before reaching its climax in the final stanza. However, because the clock is about to come to a halt it could also have the double meaning for MarinaÃ¢â¬â¢s impending death. Another literary symbol that Tennyson uses to draw up on MarinaÃ¢â¬â¢s yearning for her lover is the polar tree. The polar tree is a classic symbol of the renegade lover and his broken promise; it can be interpreted as a phallic symbol since it provides he only break in the otherwise barren and flat landscape. Within classic mythology the poplar tree is used in the text Metamorphoses, where Ovid describes how None, deserted by Paris, addresses the poplar on which Paris has carved his promise not to desert her. This interpretation is relevant to the reoccurring theme of abandonment and isolation within the poem. In the fourth stanza, the fifth line introduces the poplar tree as the Ã¢â¬ËHard by a poplar shook alleywayÃ¢â¬â¢s silver-green with gnarled bark also making itÃ¢â¬â¢s existence sound temperamental and deteriorating through the use of Ã¢â¬Ëgnarled bark and Ã¢â¬Ësilver-greenÃ¢â¬â¢, these adjectives making it unappealing in the mind of the reader. Marina lusts for the company of her previous lover, so when she sees the gusty shadow sway,Ã¢â¬â¢ in the following fourth line of the fifth stanza, this is the remainder of the sexual dominance her lover had over her and his absence in her life which has been replaced by this desolate tree. The fact that she is still pining over his vacancy shows that he still holds power over her and is able to manipulate her, which could be said of women in society being under the control of men during Tennyson time. The poplar treeÃ¢â¬â¢s isolation haunts Marina even in sleep, because it eternally serves as a remainder of the one who will never come. Death is also a prominent motif throughout the poem, as Ã¢â¬ËdeadÃ¢â¬â¢ is repeated in the last line of every stanza in the refrain. In the climaxing, last stanza of the poem, Tennyson wrote on the sixth line Ã¢â¬Ëbut she loathed the hour/When the thick-mooted sunbeam lay, this phrase is emphasized by the caesura directly prior to it, and the comparatively period lacking punctuation which follows. The words thick and Ã¢â¬Ëlay give the reader the impression that MarinaÃ¢â¬â¢s world is coated in dust, suggesting that it is morality which weighs her down since her life is bleak and oppressive. This idea is further emphasized by the day drawing to a close when Tennyson wrote in the last stanza on the 8th line, Ã¢â¬Ëand the Dallas sloping toward his western bower. The imagery here is suggestive of the sun setting and her moving towards Angelo since the connotation of light has to do with living and mortality. The ending of the day, and the drawing of the poem can be interpreted as the ending of MarinaÃ¢â¬â¢s own life. In conclusion, much of Tennyson formation of the character Marina can be seen as a projectio n of his own psychological issues. His powerful use of imagery and pathetic fallacy illustrates the struggle Marina faces between life and death as she diligently awaits her lovers return. How to cite Tennyson Close Analysis, Papers